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APA (7th ed.) Citation Style Guide: Reference Works

Reference Works

For further information on citing referenceworks, see pages 328-329 of the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020.

Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia, with Individual Author, Print

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of encyclopedia article. In Title of encyclopedia (Vol. Volume Number, pp. page numbers). Name of Publisher.

Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Encyclopaedia Britannica.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Bergmann, 1993)

Narrative citation: Bergmann (1993)

DSM 5 Online

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

DSM 5 Online - Section

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Gender Dysphoria. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

Religious Work

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (King James Bible, 1769/2017)

Narrative citation: King James Bible (1769/2017)

"The year of of original publication of a religious work may be unknown or in dispute and is not included in the reference in those cases.  However, versions of religious works such as the Bible may be republished; these republished dates are included in the reference.  For example, the online version of the King James Bible was published in 2017 and is based on the King James Bible published in 1769, so both 2017 and 1769 are included in the reference."  (

Religious Work

The Qur'an (M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (The Qur'an, 2004)

Narrative citation: The Qur'an (2004)

Religious works are usually treated as having no author.

Entry in a Dictionary, with Group Author

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Reiki. In dictionary. Retrieved April 11, 2020, from

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)

"When an online reference work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date."  (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p.328)

Encyclopedia, Online

​Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Graham, 2019)

Narrative citation: Graham (2019)

"This example is structured similarly to the reference for a chapter in an edited book because the entry has an individual author, the encyclopedia has an editor, and the whole work has a publisher."  (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p.328) 

Wikipedia Entry

With sources like Wikipedia, that are authored by unknown/unnamed author(s) and at the same time are NOT authored by the platform/publisher, the citation begins with the article title.

Higher consciousness. (2020, February 23). In Wikipedia.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: ("Higher Consciousness," 2020)

Narrative citation: "Higher Consciousness" (2020)


When the content is dynamic, e.g., continuously updated:

"Cite the archived version of the page so that readers can retrieve the version you used. Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p.329 ) 

Grove Music Online

Knopoff, S. (2001). Didjeridu. In Grove Music Online.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Knopoff, 2001)

Narrative citation: Knopoff (2001)


Grove Music - Print

Strickland, E. (2001). Glass, Philip. In The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (Vol. 2, p.934). Grove.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Knopoff, 2001)

Narrative citation: Knopoff (2001)