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APA Citation Style Guide (7th ed.): Audiovisual Material

Audio Visual Materials

Audiovisual material follows two patterns for works that stand alone (e.g. films, TV series, podcasts, webinars, YouTube videos etc. ) and for audiovisual material that are part of a greater whole (e.g. TV or podcast episodes, songs from a music album).

 Audiovisual Material that Stands Alone

Author Date Title Publisher URL
Director, D. D. (Director). (2020). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. https://xxxxx
Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (1989-present).   Label.  
Host, H. H. (Host). (2013-2019).   Museum Name, Museum Location.  
Artist, A. A. (2019, July 21).   Department Name, University Name.  
Uploader, U. U.        

 

Audiovisual Material that is Part of a Greater Whole

Author Date Title Publisher URL
Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (2020). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company. https://xxxxxx
Director, D. D. (Director). (2020, March 26). Title of song [Description]. In Title of podcast. Production Company.  
Host, H. H. (Host).     On Title of album. Label.  
Producer, P. P. (Producer).        
Composer, C. C.        
Artist, A. A.        

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 342.

Authors of Audiovisual Material

Media Type Include as the Author
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photography Photographer

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 341.

Film or Video

Name of Director or Main Contributor (Function of Main Contributor). (Copyright date). Title of film [Film]. Name of Movie Studio.

Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog millionaire [Film]. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. 

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Boyle, 2008)

Narrative citation: Boyle (2008)

 

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association. https:www.apa.org/pubs/videos/4310958.aspx

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Fosha & Levenson, 2017)

Narrative citation: Fosha and Levenson (2017)

"The director should be credited as the author of a film.  However, if the director is unknown (as with the Fosha & Levenson example), someone in a similar role can be credited instead to aid readers in retrieving the work; the description of role in this case matches what is on the work and is flexible." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 342-343). 

Film or Video in Another Language

Name of Director or Main Contributor (Function of Main Contributor). (Copyright date). Title of film [English translation] [Film]. Name of Movie Studio.

Almodovar, P. (Director). (2019). Dolor y gloria [Pain and glory] [Film]. El Primer Deseo AIE & El Deseo DA.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Almodovar, 2019)

Narrative citation: Almodovar (2019)

TV Series Episode

Name of Scriptwriter (Writer), & Name of Director (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number if available) [TV series episode]. In Name of Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of television series. Studio Name.

Cornwell, B. (Writer), Petzal, S. (Writer), & East, J. (Director). (2018, November 19).  (Season 3, Episode 6) [TV series episode]. In S. Butchard, N. Marchant, S. Neame (Executive Producers), The last kingdom. Carnival Film & Television; Netflix.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Cornwell et al., 2018)

Narrative citation: Cornwell et al. (2018)

In the above example, the episode did not have a title so that was omitted from the citation.

"Include writer(s) and the director for the episode.  Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name.  "Writer" and "Director" are shown here, but "Executive Director" or other role descriptions might also be used." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 343).

 

Podcast Episode

Podcast host. (Host). (Date of publication). Title of podcast episode (Episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production company. URL

Hass, I.  (Host). (2019, August 14). Tough Love (No. 7) [Audio podcast episode]. In The Moment. Wondery. https://wondery.com/shows/the-moment/#

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Hass, 2019)

Narrative citation: Hass (2019)

"List the host of the podcast as the author and include their role in parentheses.  Provide the episode number after the title in parentheses.  If the podcast does not number episodes, omit the number from the reference.  Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.  If the URL of the podcast is unknown (e.g. if accessed via an app), omit the URL." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., p. 345)

TED Talk

Gerald, C. (2018, December). Embrace your raw, strange magic [Video]. TED Conferences.  https://www.ted.com/talks/casey_gerald_embrace_your_raw_strange_magic

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Gerald, 2018)

Narrative citation: Gerald (2018)

 

TED. (2010, June). Brene Brown: The power of vulnerability [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCvmsMzlF7o&list=PL70DEC2B0568B5469&index=11&t=0s

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (TED, 2010)

Narrative citation: TED (2010)

"When the TED Talk comes from TED's website...use the name of the speaker as the author.  When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 344).

 

YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video

Person or group who uploaded video. (Date of posting). Title of video [Video]. Website host. URL. 

Ferris, T. (2017, July 13). How to warm up your shoulder with Tim Ferriss [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQnivPKXkZs

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Ferriss, 2017)

Narrative citation: Ferriss (2017)

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 344.

Webinar, Recorded

Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association. https://education.psychiatry.org/Users/ProductDetails.aspx?ActivityID=6172

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Goldberg, 2018)

Narrative citation: Goldberg (2018)

"Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars.  Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications." (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 344). 

Music Album

Recording artist (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record label.

Mitchell, J. (1974). Miles of aisles [Album]. Asylum.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Mitchell, 1974)

Narrative citation: Mitchell (1974)

"It is not necessary to specify how you listened to an album (e.g., streaming on Spotify, iTunes, Amazon Music, Pandora; on CD).  However, the format or other descriptive information may be included -in square brackets, following the word "Album: and a semicolon-when you need to specify the version you used (e.g., when a version of an album includes special tracks or features you accessed).  Adjust the wording as needed.  Include a URL in the reference if that location is the only means of retrieval (e.g., for artists who provide music in only one location, such as SoundCloud or their website."

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 344-345.

Single Song or Track

Recording artist (Year of release). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album [Album]. Record label. 

Miller, M. (2018). Ladders [Song]. On Swimming [Album]. Warner.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Miller, 2018)

Narrative citation: Miller (2018)

"If the song has no associated album....omit that part of the reference."

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 345.

Photograph

Photographer, A. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website Name. URL.

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (McCurry, 1985)

Narrative citation: McCurry (1985)

 

De Viguerie, V. (2019). [Notre-Dame Cathedral] [Photograph]. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/world/year-in-pictures.html

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (De Viguerie, 2019)

Narrative citation: De Viguerie (2019)

‚Äč

When photographs are untitled, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

These examples are for photographs not associated with a museum.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 347.

Photograph - No author

Title of photograph or image [Photograph]. (Date of posting). Website name. URL

Esalen sunset [Photograph]. (n.d.). Tripadvisor. https://www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g240329-d107006-i122075677-The_Esalen_Institute-Big_Sur_California.html

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Esalen sunset, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Esalen sunset (n.d.)

"For works with an unknown author, include the title and year of publication in the in-text citation (note that the title moves to the author position in the reference list entry as well).  If the title of the work is italicized in the reference, also italicize the title in the in-text citation.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 264.

 

Artwork in a Museum

Altdorfer, A. (1518-1520). Landscape with a footbridge [Painting]. National Gallery, London, England.

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Altdorfer, 1518-1520)

Narrative citation: Altdorfer (1518-1520)

"Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.  For untitled art, include a description in square brackets after the title." Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 346.

Artwork on a Museum Website

Artist, A. (Year of release). Title of artwork [medium]. Name of museum, City, State, Country. URL

Baziotes, W. (1952). The flesh eaters [Painting]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, United States. https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/486598

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Baziotes, 1952)

Narrative citation: Baziotes (1952)

If the artwork is not titled, give a description in square brackets after the title. (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 346.)

Clip Art or Stock Image

Liftarn. (2020). Blue sneakers [Clip art]. Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/319669/blue-sneakers

In Text

Parenthetical citation: (Liftarn, 2020)

Narrative citation: Liftarn (2020)

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., 2020, p. 346.