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MLA (9th ed.) Citation Style: Welcome

MLA Manuals

MLA Handbook

Getting Started

Welcome to the Douglas College Library guide to MLA Citation Style (9th ed.). In these pages, we offer numerous examples of how to cite a variety of sources and how to make your in-text citations. We've also included links to other helpful resources and tips on how to keep track of all those articles you've used in your research.

Select the tabs above for examples of the material you wish to cite.

Citing content generated by artificial intelligence (AI) tools

Many instructors will not allow the use of generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools (i.e. ChatGPT, et cetera) in assignments. If you do use tools like this, it is important that you check with your instructors first and then that you include citations in your assignment. 

The MLA Style Center website has some information about AI and chat tools and includes examples on paraphrasing and quoting text generated by AI, quoting creative textual works created by AI (like poems), citing creative visual works created by AI, and citing secondary sources used by an AI tool. MLA recommends that AI tools are not treated as Authors and emphasize that "all functional uses of the tools (like editing your prose or translating words)" are acknowledged.

Below are ways to approach citation using the MLA template.

Author Do not cite the tool as an author

Title of Source Describe what was generated by the AI tool (see below).

Title of Container Name the AI tool (e.g., ChatGPT)

Version Name the version of the AI tool as specifically as possible (e.g., ChatGPT 3.5).

Publisher Name the company that made the tool. 

Date Give the date the content was generated.

Location If a unique URL is generated for the text or images generated by the AI tool, include that link. If not, give the general URL for the tool. 



“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, Feb. 13 version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,


To see more detailed descriptions and the examples listed above, please visit Ask the MLA's page on How do cite generative AI in MLA style?

Avoiding Plagiarism (video)

Check out this short video on how to avoid plagiarism, thanks to the BCIT Library.

Changes from the 8th to the 9th edition

9th edition

8th edition

Seasons in publication dates are not capitalized (e.g. fall 2021) Seasons in publication dates capitalized (e.g. Fall 2020)
Include the format of your media source in your reference (e.g. MP3 format)  
For articles from databases with a DOI, write the DOI as a web address (e.g. beginning with  
Film references are listed by title of the film (not name of the director) Could cite films by title or by director (to emphasize the performance of a director)
Film/videos from streaming services do not need a URL but the name of the streaming service should be included (in italics) at the end of the reference  
Includes language around inclusive language: avoid gender-specific terms (e.g. policeman, chairman), use inclusive pronouns (e.g. they instead of him/her), avoid judgmental language (e.g. suffers from, victim of) No specific guidelines around inclusive language or language to avoid.