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Chicago (17th ed.) Citation Style Guide: Author - Date System (Chicago Style and APSA)


"The following examples illustrate the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style" (Chicago Manual of Style Online.  

The Chicago Manual of Style also has a very useful website with a page dedicated to the Author-Date system, as well as a general Q & A page which includes some citation topics.

When citing sources with more than one author, the first author's name is always listed as last name, first name while subsequent author names are listed first name last name

Book - Single Author

Oakley, Ann. 2003. Gender on Planet Earth. New York: New Press.

In Text

(Oakley 2003, 77)

Book - Two or Three Authors

Boxer, Marilyn J., and Jean H. Quataert. 2000. Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1500 to the Present. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

In Text

(Boxer and Quataert 2000, 69)

Book - More than Three Authors

Clayden, Marie, Dianne Fenner, Christine McAdam, and Christine Strauss. 2003. Making It Work: A Handbook for Reading, Writing, Language and Media. Toronto: Irwin Publishing.

In Text

(Clayden et al. 2003, 209)


For a book with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry.

Book - Corporate Author

American Medical Association. 1998. Essential Guide to Asthma. New York: Pocket Books.

In Text

(American Medical Association 1998, 141)

Book - No Author

American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English. 2002. Boston: Houghton.

In Text

(American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English 2002, 309)

Book - Editor as Author

Hughes, Kenneth J., ed. 1990. Contemporary Manitoba Writers: New Critical Studies. Winnipeg: Turnstone Press.

In Text

(Hughes 1990, 77)

Chapter or Other Part of a Book

Crozier, Lorna. 2001. “What Stays in the Family.” In Dropped Threads: What We Aren’t Told, edited by Carol Shields and Marjorie Anderson, 11-18. Toronto: Vintage Canada.

In Text

(Crozier 2001, 14)

Electronic Book

Kutscher, Martin L. 2017. Digital Kids: How to Balance Screen Time, and Why it Matters. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ProQuest EbookCentral.

In Text

(Kutscher 2017, 49)


When citing an e-book, include a URL or the name of the database the e-book was accessed in. For an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section number or another reference marker.


The Blind Side. 2010. Directed by John Lee Hancock. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. DVD.

In Text

(Blind Side 2010)

Sound Recording

Horowitz, Vladimir. 1989. The Last Recording. Sony Classical SK 45818, 1990, compact disc.

In Text

(Horowitz 1989)

Course Pack

Klein, Joseph. 2011. “Recommendations for Care.” In NURS 2190: Nursing Philosophical Issues Course Pack, edited by Sarah Kaye, 11-24. Coquitlam: Douglas College Bookstore.

In Text

(Klein 2011)

Secondary sources

Secondary sources should only be cited if you are unable to obtain the original.

Cite the original source as a footnote or endnote, or refer to within the text. Cite the secondary source (i.e. the article/book you read) in your References list.

For example, if you read a work by Lyon et al. (2014) in which Rabbitt (1982) was cited, and you were unable to read Rabbitt's work yourself, cite Rabbitt's work as the original source, followed by Lyon et al.'s work as the secondary source. Only Lyon et al.'s work appears in the reference list.


In Text

Barron (as cited in Brennan 2021) ...

Entry in Reference List: 

Brennan, Karen. 2021. "How Kids Manage Self-Directed Programming Projects: Strategies and Structures." Journal of the Learning Sciences 30 (4-5): 576-610. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2021.1936531. (Accessed February 27, 2022). 

Journal Article from Library Database or the Internet with a DOI

One Author

Tolmacz, Rami. 2008. “Concern and Empathy: Two Concepts or One.” American Journal of Psychoanalysis 68(3): 257-275.

In Text

(Tolmacz 2008, 260)


Multiple Authors

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34.

In Text

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 28)


If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; more more than ten authors, list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.. In text, list only the first author followed by et al.. For more information, see section 15.46049 in the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.

Journal Article from a Library Database Without a DOI

Sandage, Steven J. 2010. “Comparison of Two Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness: Empathy as a Mediator of Change.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 32(1): 35-57. Academic Search Complete.

In Text

(Sandage 2010, 43)

Journal Article - Print

Tolmacz, Rami. 2008. “Concern and Empathy: Two Concepts or One.” American Journal of Psychoanalysis 68(3): 257-275. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2008.22.

In Text

(Tolmacz 2008, 260)

Journal Article from the Internet Without a DOI

Bean, Heidi R. 2009. “Carla Harryman’s Non/Representation and the Ethics of Dispersive.” Postmodern Culture 20(1).

In Text

(Bean 2009)


Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51.

In Text

(Bouman 2016)


Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017.

In Text

(Google 2017)


Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.

In Text

(Yale University n.d.)


"It is often sufficient to simply describe web pages and other website content in the text...If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below."  (

Webpages - No Date, With an Access Date

Alliance for Linguistic Diversity. n.d. "Balkan Romani." Endangered Languages. Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.endangered

In Text

(Alliance for Linguistic Diversity n.d.)


CivicPlus Content Management System. n.d. City of Ithaca, New York (website). Accessed April 6, 2016.

In Text

(CivicPlus n.d.)

"Chicago requires an access date in citations of websites and other sources consulted online only if no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source.  In those cases - that is, when only an access date is used- record n.d. as the date of publication in the reference list entry and for the in-text citation.  To avoid conflation with the name of the author, n.d. is always lower case."  (Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., pp. 915-916)


Posner, Richard. 2009. “Inequality in Income and Wealth.” The Becker-Posner Blog, January 30.

In Text

(Posner 2009)

"It is often sufficient to cite blog posts...entirely within the text." (Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., pp. 916)

Government Documents

British Columbia. Ministry of Education. 2011. Special Education Services: A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education.

In Text

(British Columbia. Ministry of Education 2011)


Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991. Brief to the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women.

In Text

(Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991)