THE CRAAP GUIDE TO EVALUATING WEBSITES AND ONLINE RESOURCES
You can't believe everything you read, see or hear! Use this checklist to select the best.
Is the publication date noted?
Is the information/publication date current for your topic?
Has the website been recently updated?
Are the links still active and useful?
How old is the information being given? Is the information outdated?
How old is the information being cited/referenced in the resource compared to the publication date of the source?
Does the information relate to your research topic. Does it answer the questions you are asking?
Who is the intended audience? Is it meant for the general public? Children? Academics?
Is the level of information appropriate for you?
Is this the best resource out there? Have you looked for other sources?
Who is the author and what are their credentials? (Credentials = Are they an expert who works within the field OR an individual with a PhD or higher education on the subject OR are they an academic with affiliations to reputable institutions?)
Are there any organizational affiliations that may create bias?
Look at the domain name what doe it tell you?
.ca - Canadian based website .gc.ca – Canadian federal government site .bc.ca – British Columbia provincial government site .gov – U.S. government site .edu – U.S. educational institution .com/.net/.org – no longer serve any distinction, anyone can get any of them for a fee.
Can you tell where the information comes from? Are resources cited? What type of resources are cited?
Is the information factual and can it be verified?
Are there grammatical errors or typos?
Has the source been reviewed by experts in the field?
Is it biased? Does the writer have a calm tone?
Does other material that you have found for your research support their claims?
Who is the intended audience? General public, children, academics etc.
Why was the site created? For education, informational, to persuade or sell something?
Is it fact, opinion, or propaganda?
Is the purpose/mission/goals clearly stated on the site?
Are there advertisements? If so why are they there and what are they selling?
Is the information presented impartial and objective?
Library and Archives Canada's collection on Flickr. Find Canadian primary resources from the 19th and early 20th century through Flickr. Resources include: publications, archival records, sound and audio-visual materials, photographs, artworks, and electronic documents such as websites.
Collection focuses on historical documents collected from the Blackfoot community about the Blackfoot peoples and culture. Includes primary sources in the forms of videos, audio, images and textual documents. Use the search box to begin searching and use the filtering options on the right hand side to narrow down your search after you have entered a keyword.
An online archive of the Canadian war experience, from any war, as told through the letters and images of Canadians themselves. Collections focus on pre 1914, World War I; World War II; Canada's participation in the Korean war 1950-1953, post Korean war and more. Use the search function to search or browse by collections by using the Collections tab.
A collection of more than 144,000 newspaper articles taken from various Canadian newspapers during the Second World War by the Hamilton Spectator, a Canadian newspaper; also contains short historical articles on key topics from 1939-1945.
Collection draws from the archival microfilm material held by Library and Archives Canada, with a focus on Canadian politics, arts and literature, labour, military, aboriginal history, social justice and women's history. Collection includes 40 million pages of primary-source documents.
Includes archival records of HBC and other records related to HBC history, such as private records of individuals and subsidiary companies, including the North West Company. Search in the Keystone Archives Descriptive Database or browse by biographical sheets, fur trade post maps, and name indexes.
Collection contains references from more than 40,700 digitized pages of the original annual reports for the Indian Affairs portfolio for the years 1864 to 1966 and the complete annual reports for the department of Indian Affairs from 1967 to 1990. Reports include names and activities of Indian agents in various areas of the country; education and health of Aboriginal peoples; amount and nature of moneys spent; some residential and day schools; some statistics.
Find primary Canadian resources such as rare books and first editions; government records; architectural drawings, plans and maps (dating back to the early 16th century), Canadian theses; periodicals; photographic images, including prints, negatives, slides and digital photos; documentaries and silent films, dating as far back as 1897; audio and video recordings, works of art, including water colours, oil paintings, sketches, caricatures and miniatures, some dating back to the 1600s; as well as medals, seals, posters and coats of arms; Canadian sheet music; Canadian Postal Archives; textual archives for various individuals and groups who have contributed to Canada's cultural, social, economic and political development; national newspapers from across Canada, from dailies to student newspapers, and from Aboriginal magazines to ethnic community newsletters.
Collection focused on New France and includes archival documents arranged under 12 themes: departure (the circumstances upon leaving), navigation (the crossing), discovery (the exploration of new territories), encounter (contact with Aboriginal peoples); settlement (the seigneurial system); foundation (the establishment of towns and forts); daily life (everyday life in the colony); administration (the institutions); trade (the economy); worship (the role of the Church); warfare (armed conflict) and survival (the changeover of European control, the deportation of the Acadians, and the English conquest).
Comprehensive online collection of primary sources of Nova Scotia. Collection includes letters, photographs, maps, propaganda posters, post cards and other historical documents on topics such as first world war, Acadians, African Nova Scotians, Bluenose, people of Nova Scotia, statistics, the Halifax explosion and much more.
A Saskatchewan archival initiative with material focusing on First Nations, Metis, and Inuit peoples. Site available in English, Cree and Dene. Collections are gathered from several of Saskatchewan’s publicly-accessible archives and include: articles, books, correspondence, diaries, magazines, pamphlets, photographs, postcards, posters, reports, textual documents and more.
Collection contains books, newspapers, images, postcards, maps and other materials related to the development of the Prairies. Some materials are also available in French, Ukrainian, and other languages.
The second edition of Historical statistics of Canada was jointly produced by the Social Science Federation of Canada and Statistics Canada in 1983. This volume contains about 1,088 statistical tables on the social, economic and institutional conditions of Canada from the start of Confederation in 1867 to the mid-1970s. The tables are arranged in sections with an introduction explaining the content of each section, the principal sources of data for each table, and general explanatory notes regarding the statistics.
Collection offers 500 virtual exhibits that focus on history, culture, science and the arts in Canada. Use the search feature to search for an exhibit or use the filter exhibits section to narrow down by type and subject of exhibit.
The Digitized Okanagan History (D.O.H.) collection features copies of unique historical documents from participating memory institutions located throughout British Columbia’s Okanagan Valley. D.O.H. includes digitized copies of primary source materials such as photographs, documents and published materials.
The BC Historical Newspapers project features digitized versions of historical papers from around the province. The titles, which range from the Abbotsford Post to Westward Ho!, date from 1865 to 1994.
A resource from the University of Alberta dedicated to assisting scholars, students, and researchers of all types in their exploration of western Canadian history and the culture of the Canadian prairies.
A collection of historical newspapers digitized by the Prince George Public Library, Prince George, British Columbia. Including Prince George Citizen (1916-2017), CNC Student Newspapers and other local newspapers.)
Call Number: per 1899-1982 . (Ceased publication)
Publication Date: 1899-1982
Find historical newspaper articles published between Sept. 1899 to Nov.15, 1983. To find articles, browse the microfilm by date. For help locating and browsing the microfilm, please see the Library staff.
Find newspaper articles published from 1907 to 1997 by browsing the microfilm by date. Search the Canadian Periodical Index (located in the Reference section at NW campus) to find the full citation of an article if published between 1993 to 1996. Article citations will be organized alphabetically by author and subject in the Index. Search the Library catalogue to find more information on this Index.
Call Number: 1849-2003 // (Microfilm), Current 2 months periodicals
Publication Date: 1894 - 1983 & current 2 months
Find newspaper articles published from 1849 to 2003 by browsing the microfilm and articles published in the last two months by browsing the print collection (located in the Periodicals section). Search the Canadian Index (located in the Reference at Coquitlam campus) to find the full citation of an article if published between 1993 to 1996. Article citations will be organized alphabetically by subject in the Index. Search the Library catalogue to find more information on this Index.
Find newspaper articles published from 1894 to 1983 by browsing the microfilm by date and articles published in the last two months by browsing the print collection (located on Reserve). Full citations for the articles can also be found in the B.C. Newspaper Index online between 1991 to 2007 or on microfilm from 1900 to 1980 through the British Columbia Provincial Library Newspaper Index. In addition, you can also browse the List of Subjects in Provincial Library Newspaper Index, 1900-1969 (to browse by subjects used) and the List of Personal Names in Provincial Library Newspaper Index, 1900-1969 (to browse by authors). Use the terminology found in these Subject and Personal Names indexes to help find the full citation of an article in the British Columbia Provincial Library Newspaper Index. Subject and Print Indexes are located on top of the microfilm cabinets at the NW campus.