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Chicago Style: Author - Date System

Author/Date System

Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date System


The Chicago Manual of Style has two basic documentation systems: the author-date system and the humanities style (notes and bibliography). The author-date system is widely used by the social sciences and sciences disciplines.

In the author-date system, sources are cited through parenthetical references within the text and in a reference list at the end of the paper.  The reference list provides full bibliographic information.

APSA Style generally follows the Chicago Manual of Style's Author - Date System (15th ed.).  This guide is based on Chicago Style, 16th ed.  If you are using this guide for APSA, you should check with your instructor as this guide is based on the 16th edition rather than the 15th edition of Chicago Style.


Book - Single Author

Oakley, Ann. 2003. Gender on Planet Earth. New York: New Press.

In Text

(Oakley 2003, 77)


Book – Two or Three Authors

Boxer, Marilyn J., and Jean H. Quataert. 2000. Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1500 to the Present. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

In Text

(Boxer and Quataert 2000, 69)


Book - More than Three Authors

Clayden, Marie, Dianne Fenner, Christine McAdam, and Christine Strauss. 2003. Making It Work: A Handbook for Reading, Writing, Language and Media. Toronto: Irwin Publishing.

In Text

(Clayden et al. 2003, 209)

For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al.


Book – Corporate Author

American Medical Association. 1998. Essential Guide to Asthma. New York: Pocket Books.

In Text

(American Medical Association 1998, 141)


Book – No Author

American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English. 2002. Boston: Houghton.

In Text

(American Heritage Dictionary for Learners of English 2002, 309)


Book – Editor as Author

Hughes, Kenneth J., ed. 1990. Contemporary Manitoba Writers: New Critical Studies. Winnipeg: Turnstone Press.

In Text

(Hughes 1990, 77)


Chapter or Other Part of a Book

Crozier, Lorna. 2001. “What Stays in the Family.” In Dropped Threads: What We Aren’t Told, edited by Carol Shields and Marjorie Anderson, 11-18. Toronto: Vintage Canada.

In Text

(Crozier 2001, 14)


Electronic Book

Russell, Martin. 2001. Beethoven’s Hair: An Extraordinary Historical Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York: Broadway Books. ebrary collections e-book.

In Text

(Martin 2001, 46)

When citing an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section number or another reference marker.


Journal – Print

Berger, Benjamin. 2002. “The Limits of Belief: Freedom of Religion, Secularism, and the Liberal State.” Canadian Journal of Law and Society 17(1): 39-68.

In Text

(Berger 2002, 47)


Journal Article from a Library Database or the Internet with a DOI

Tolmacz, Rami. 2008. “Concern and Empathy: Two Concepts or One.” American Journal of Psychoanalysis 68(3): 257-275. doi: 10.1057/ajp.2008.22.

In Text

(Tolmacz 2008, 260)


Journal Article from a Library Database without a DOI

Sandage, Steven J. 2010. “Comparison of Two Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness: Empathy as a Mediator of Change.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 32(1): 35-57. Academic Search Complete.

In Text

(Sandage 2010, 43)


Journal Article from the Internet without a DOI

Bean, Heidi R. 2009. “Carla Harryman’s Non/Representation and the Ethics of Dispersive.” Postmodern Culture 20(1).

In Text

(Bean 2009)



Author of the Site. Year Published, Modified or Accessed. “Title of Web Page.” Owner/Sponsor of Site. Published, Modified or Accessed Month Day. URL.


Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11.

In Text

(Google 2009)


McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19.

In Text

(McDonald’s 2008)


Watson, Ivan. 2011. “Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab Spring.” Last modified October 23.

In Text

(Watson 2011)



Posner, Richard. 2009. “Inequality in Income and Wealth.” The Becker-Posner Blog, January 30.

In Text

(Posner 2009)

Blog entries are generally cited only as a note or a mention in the text.  They are commonly omitted from the bibliography. A frequently cited blog may be included in the bibliography.


Government Publications

British Columbia. Ministry of Education. 2011. Special Education Services: A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education.

In Text

(British Columbia. Ministry of Education 2011)


Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991. Brief to the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women.

In Text

(Canada. Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women 1991)


Motion Picture

The Blind Side. 2010. Directed by John Lee Hancock. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video. DVD.

In Text

(Blind Side 2010)


Sound Recording

Horowitz, Vladimir. 1989. The Last Recording. Sony Classical SK 45818, 1990, compact disc.

In Text

(Horowitz, 1989)


Course Pack

Klein, Joseph. 2011. “Recommendations for Care.” In NURS 2190: Nursing Philosophical Issues Course Pack, edited by Sarah Kaye, 11-24. Coquitlam: Douglas College Bookstore.

In Text

(Klein 2011)

Subject Guide