Skip to main content
Douglas College Library Books & DVDs Articles & Databases Research Help & Guides Services Faculty

MLA Style (7th Ed.): Audiovisual Material

Film, DVD, Video (5.7.3)

Black Robe. Screenplay by Brian Moore. Dir. Bruce Beresford. Perf.

         Lothaire Bluteau. Alliance Atlantis, 1991. DVD.

A citation for a film “usually begins with the title, italicized, and includes the director, the distributor, the year of release, and the medium consulted.  You may include other data that seems pertinent – such as the names of the screenwriter, performers, and producer-between the title and the distributor…Cite a DVD, videocassette, laser disc, slide program, or filmstrip as you would a film.  Include the original release date when it is relevant.” (See p. 197, MLA Handbook, 2009)

Videos, YouTube (5.6.2)

 Baker, N. “March of the Librarians.” YouTube.  YouTube, 7 Feb. 2007.

         Web. 19 June 2009.

Music - Sound Recordings (5.7.2)

Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 9 in D Minor “Choral.” Perf. Elisabeth

         Schwarzkopf, Elisabeth Hongen, Hans Hopf, and Otto Edelmann. Chor

         und Orchester der Bayreuther Festspiele. Cond. Wilhelm Furtwangler.

         Rec. 29 July 1951. EMI, 1998. CD. Great Recordings of the Century.


Holiday, Billie. The Essence of Billie Holiday. Columbia, 1991. CD.


Blige, Mary J. “Enough Cryin.” The Breakthrough. Geffen, 2005. CD.

Begin the entry with the name of the person you most want to emphasize (e.g., the composer, conductor, ensemble, or performer). List the title in italics, the artist or artists (such as performers or musicians), the manufacturer, the year of issue, the medium, and the date of publication.  If you are citing a song, put the song title in quotation marks and italicize the name of the CD or album. (See p. 195, MLA Handbook, 2009)

CD-ROM (5.7.17)

Smokefree Spaces: Activist Tool Kit. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2005.


Treat a nonperiodical publication on CD-ROM as you would a book, but add CD-ROM as the medium of publication. (See p. 208, MLA Handbook, 2009)

Digital Files (5.7.18)

Hansen, Stin. “Meditation Station Podcast.”

         LearnOutLoud, 2009. MP3 file.

Hudson, Jennifer, perf. “And I am Telling You I’m Not Going.”

         Dreamgirls: Music from the Motion Picture. Sony BMG, 2006. MP3 file.

Delano, Jack. At the Vermont State Fair. 1941. Lib. of Cong., Washington.

          JPEG file.

Digital files can exist independently from the Internet. They can include sound recordings, scanned images, PDF files stored on your computer etc.  The MLA handbook recommends one “determine the kind of work you are citing (e.g., a book, a typescript, a photograph, a sound recording), and follow the relevant guidelines. In the place reserved for the medium of publication, record the digital file format, followed by the word filePDF file, Microsoft Word file, JPEG file, MP3 file, XML file, and so on- neither italicized (except for titles of software programs) nor enclosed in quotation marks….If you cannot identify the file type, use Digital file.” (See p. 211, MLA Handbook, 2009)