Author, A. A. (publication year). Title of work: Subtitle of work. Place of
Capitalize the first word in the title, the first word in the subtitle and all proper nouns. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 202)
Keeler, R. (2008). Natural playscapes: Creating outdoor play environments for
Provide the location (city and state/province) where the publisher is located. If the publisher is a university and the name of the state or province is included in the university name, do not repeat the name in the publisher location. (Publication manual, 2010, pp. 186-187)
(Keeler, 2008, p. 89) – when quoting
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual
of mental disorders (4th
(American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for the first citation than abbreviate to (APA, 2000) for subsequent citations. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 177)
Adovasio, J. M., Soffer, O., & Page, J. (2007). The invisible sex: Uncovering
the roles of women in prehistory.
Invert all author’s names: give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six author’s names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 184)
(Adavasio, Soffer, & Page, 2007) for the first citation. For subsequent citations use (Adavasio et al., 2007)
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993).
(Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
When a work has no author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 176)
Newby, G. (Ed.). (2002). Concise encyclopedia of Islam.
Hunt, R. R., & Ellis, H. C. (Eds.). (1999). Fundamentals of cognitive
(Hunt & Ellis, 1999)
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2013). Nursing research in Canada:
Methods, critical appraisal, and utilization (3rd Cdn. ed.) (C. Cameron &
M. D. Singh, Cdn. Adapt.). Toronto, ON: Elsevier Canada.
(LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2013)
Kirszner, L., & Mandell, S. (2000). The pocket Holt handbook (5th ed.).
(Kirszner & Mandell, 2000)
Chang, T. (Ed.). (2014). CRIM 2251: Psychological explanations of crime
(Douglas College ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Note: T. Chang is the instructor of the course. She compiled the customized textbook and is considered the editor.
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A
guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].
The e-reader book type is put in square brackets (e.g. Kindle, Adobe Digital Editions, EPub, HTML). If the book was read or acquired through an online library (e.g., Google Books, ebrary, NetLibrary, MyiLibrary) and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference. (APA Style Blog, apastyle.org)
Barrett, L. (2011). Beyond the brain: How body and environment shape
animal and human minds. Retrieved from
Freud, S. (1953). The method of interpreting dreams: An analysis of a
specimen dream. In
the complete psychological works of
Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books (Original work published 1900)
Gettman, D. (n.d.). The twinkle theory. Retrieved from