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APA Citation Style Guide (6th ed.): Audiovisual Materials

Basic Format for Films

Producer, A.A. (Producer), & Director, B.B (Director). (Year).

Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Examples of format are DVD, Video file, Video recording.


Colson, C. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog millionaire

[DVD]. United States: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. 

In the author position, use the name of the film's producer and/or director, and the year of its release.   

In Text

(Colson, 2008) 

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding

therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD].

Available from

In Text

(American Psychological Association, 2000)    


Video Recording

Koenig, W. (Producer), & Huycke, S. (Director). (1985). If you want a girl

like me [Video recording]. Montreal, Canada: National Film Board of


In Text

(Koenig & Huycke, 1985)

Online Videos

Crawford, B. (Producer/Director). (1995). Interpersonal process recall: The

recall process - individual recall (#IPR D-1) [Video file]. Retrieved from

In Text

(Crawford, 1995) 



Ghonim, W. (2011, March). Inside the Egyptian revolution [Video file].

Retrieved from


In Text

(Ghonim, 2011)

Online Videos, YouTube

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught

on Video Tape 14 [Video file]. Retrieved from


 In Text

(Apsolon, 2011)


Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Possible ghost caught on surveillance camera

[Video file]. Retrieved from


In Text

(Bellofolletti, 2009)

To help with retrieval, the person who posted the video is put in the author position.  On YouTube, the screen name is most prominent. Include both the real name and the screen name when available.  If the user’s real name is not available, include only the screen name, without brackets.

Basic Format fo Music

Composer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if

different from composer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD,

cassette, podcast, etc]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different

from song copyright date)


Mitchell, J. (1974). Jericho. On Miles of aisles [CD]. New York, NY: Asylum.

In Text

(Mitchell, 1974)

Music - Recording by Artist Other Than Composer

Mitchell, J. (1974). Jericho [Recorded by K.D. Lang]. On Hymns from the

49th Parallel [CD]. Toronto, ON: Nonesuch. (2004)

In Text

(Mitchell, 1974)

Audio Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio.

[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

In Text

(Van Nuys, 2007)