Publishers have started to assign a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to journal articles and other types of documents. A DOI is a unique alpha-numeric code given to individual online works. The DOI usually appears at the top of the article or in the database record for the article.
At the moment, not all publishers provide DOIs. Some library databases such as PsycINFO provide a DOI for each article. When a DOI is provided, you should provide it at the end of your APA reference. Items with a DOI no longer need the database name in the citation.
APA suggests that when DOIs are available, you include them for both print and electronic sources.
If there is no DOI provided, try searching CrossRef.org, a free DOI lookup. (http://www.crossref.org/guestquery/)
If the article you are citing does not have a DOI, provide the home page URL of the journal. If you are accessing the article from a library database, you will need to do a web (google) search to locate the URL. You do not have to include the name of the database in the citation.
There is no need to include the retrieval date unless the source information is likely to change.
Fasching, W. (2008). Consciousness, self-consciousness and meditation.
Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 7(4), 468-483. doi:
Ironson, G., Balbin, E., Stuelzle, R., Fletcher, M. A., O’Cleirigh, C.,
Laurenceau, J.P., … Solomon, G. (2005). Dispositional optimism and
the mechanisms by which it predicts slower disease progression in HIV:
Proactive behavior, avoidant coping, and depression. International Journal
of Behavioral Medicine, 12(2), 86-97. doi: 10.1207/s15327558ijbm1202_6
Invert all author’s names: give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six author’s names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 184)
(Ironson et al., 2005) For works by six or more authors, always cite the first author’s name followed by et al. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 177)
Skilbeck, J., & Payne, S. (2005). End of life care: A discursive analysis of
specialist palliative care nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(4),
325-334. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/
This article was retrieved from Cinahl. To cite it properly it was necessary to do a web search to find out the URL for the Journal of Advanced Nursing.
(Skilbeck & Payne, 2005)
Carr, D., & Boerner, K. (2009). Do spousal discrepancies in marital quality
assessments affect psychological adjustment to widowhood? Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 71(3), 495-509.
This article is from a print journal without a DOI.
(Carr & Boerner, 2009)
Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an
option for extended learning. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED472733)
Some documents (e.g., discontinued journals, dissertations, in house documents or papers not formally published) can only be found in electronic databases such as ERIC, JSTOR or Canadian Points of View Reference Centre. Give the accession number in parentheses at the end of the reference.
(Brewster & Railsback, 2002)
Klassen, J. (2009). Fishing industry : An overview. Retrieved from
Canadian Points of View Reference Centre database. (28674926)
The Canadian Points of View database produces some in house documents. This is an example of how to cite a Canadian Points of View in house document. Regular journal articles in this database would be cited like a either a journal article with a DOI or a journal article without a Doi.
Chartered Professional Accountants Canada. (2012, May). Public sector
accounting handbook highlight summary no. 36. Retrieved from CPA
Canada Standards and Guidance Collection (CPACHB) database.
(Chartered Professional Accountants Canada, 2012)
Includes the CPA Canada Handbook which replaces the CICA Handbook.
Datamonitor. (2011, June 24). Tabcorps Holdings Limited: Company profile.
Retrieved from http://www.datamonitor.com/
O’Grady, K. E. (1986). [Review of the test Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual
Satisfaction, by J. Rust & S. Golombok]. Mental measurements yearbook
(10th. Ed.). Retrieved from Mental Measurements Yearbook with Tests
in Print database.
Database names and abstract identifier (if applicable) may be given for material of limited circulation (Publication Manual, 2010, p. 202)
Dates of Mental Measurements Yearbooks: 9th-1985; 10th-1989; 11th-1992; 12th-1995; 13th-1998; 14th-2001; 15th-2003; 16th-2005; 17th-2007; 18th-2010.
MarketLine. (2015, June 1). Company profile: Starbucks Corporation. Retrieved
Provide the URL of the publisher homepage (MarketLine) rather than the name of the database used to retrieve the document (Business Source Complete).
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking
down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science,
For magazines, newspapers and newsletters provide the year and the exact date of the publication (separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses). If the date provided is a season, provide the year and season (separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses). (Publication manual, 2010, p. 185)
(Kandel & Squire, 2000)
Clay, R. (2008,
the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from
Boettcher, S. (2009, September 28). The power of positive thinking. The
Vancouver Sun, pp. C3, C5.
When an article appears on non-consecutive pages, provide all the page numbers and separate the numbers with a comma. (Publication manual, 2010, p. 200)
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure.
(1993, July 15). The National Post, p. A12.
(“New Drug”, 1993) Use a few words of the title if the title is too long (Publication manual, 2010, p. 176)
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Provide the URL of the home page of the newspaper when the online version of the article is available by searching the website. (Publication Manual, 2010, p. 201)
Duggan, E. (2012, February 27). Snowmobile tracks offer wolves access to
threatened caribou. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved from
This newspaper article was retrieved from the Canadian Newsstream database. It does not have a DOI. To cite it properly it was necessary to do a web search to find out the URL for the Vancouver Sun.